[page 103]








Franz von Benda-Beckmann and Han F. Vermeulen



Born 1915 in Toeloeng Agoeng on Java, where his father, Frederik David Holleman (1887-1958), was president of the colonial court (landraad), Hans Holleman grew up and spent his first school years in the Moluccas and Java. He continued his education in Batavia (now Jakarta) and for some years in Amsterdam. He had first wanted to become a doctor, possibly a psychiatrist or child specialist, but after  finishing high school he spent one month with his father on Bali where he “consciously tasted for the first time the full flavour of life in a Native community” (Holleman 1958: 7-8). This meeting between father and son was, as Holleman himself said, a “revelation” that determined the road he wanted to follow and that would give meaning to his professional career. His father had been a judge and later professor at the Law Academy (Rechtshoogeschool) in Batavia, was a renowned adat law scholar, deeply concerned with the state of the colonial administration of justice in the Netherlands East Indies and in his country of origin, South Africa. His father complained about the South African government, which had been slow to recognise the value of basic indigenous institutions. There was prejudice and misunderstanding, a huge need for a new scientific approach to native laws, and a hard battle ahead to formulate a more liberal kind of legislation in which the basic values of native life were recognized (1958:9). This meeting changed his mind. It made him yearn to immerse himself in the field of law and ethnology, study the nature of unwritten legal orders of native peoples, and engage in discussions on how the administration of justice in colonial settings in which state law regularly came into conflict with legal ideas and processes of the local, African or Indonesian population could be improved. As he later wrote, “it suddenly became more important to explore the inside of [page 104] human society and to know how it lived and functioned, than to confine myself to the anatomy of the human body.” Holleman’s Balinese dream would become reality in two different careers, first as a researcher, administrator and young lecturer in South Africa and Rhodesia, and after 1963 as a professor at the University of Leiden, where in 1969 he was appointed to the same chair that his greatly admired predecessors Cornelis van Vollenhoven, the eminent adat law scholar and founder of the Leiden adat law school, and later his own father, had held before him.


His academic life started in South Africa. Holleman studied Roman-Dutch Law and Ethnology at the University of Stellenbosch and graduated with a master's thesis on the native legal communities among the Zulu (1938a), based on short research visits to Zululand. After his graduation, he conducted six more months of field research on legal communities and land law among the Zulu in the period 1938-40 and published several articles on Zulu social and political organisation (1940, 1941, republished 1986; see also Kuper 1993). His first attempts to put his knowledge of African customary law into practice ended in frustration. He joined the Union Civil Service, wanting to work in the Department of Native Affairs, but he was given a job in the Department of Justice (1940-1945) and “banned” to a village in the south-western Cape province, hundreds of miles away from the African population (Holleman 1958:11). Disappointed, he quit and joined a film company as art director. Holleman was an enthusiastic and gifted photographer, who in 1938 and 1939 had had photo-exhibitions of his research in Zululand in Stellenbosch. To his great relief, he was six months later offered a fellowship to do research among the Mashona tribes of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) by the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute (RLI), the major anthropological research institute in Central Africa (Lusaka). Its director, Max Gluckman, the later founder of the Manchester School of Social Anthropology and one of the most important legal anthropologists of the twentieth century, had devised comprehensive plans for research in Central and Southern Africa (Schumaker 2001). Holleman’s appointment at the RLI was to last for six years (1945-52). He conducted long-term fieldwork, which led to two different kinds of publications. First, he wrote his dissertation in 1950, under the supervision of Isaac Schapera, a lifetime mentor and friend, at the University of Cape Town. The revised version of Shona Customary Law, dedicated to his father, was published in 1952 by Oxford University Press, and reprinted by Manchester University Press in 1969.


In another book, African Interlude (1958), Holleman wrote about his research in a much more personal way, filling it with anecdotes and exciting case stories. The book showed his great personal and moral involvement in understanding and appreciating the life and ways of Africans, and his attempts to communicate his insights to the colonial administration. More than his purely academic [page 105] publications, the stylistically and carefully composed African Interlude showed the literary Holleman who during his younger years had written a number of stories and books in Afrikaans under different pseudonyms. In his early twenties he had published several stories in journals and in 1939 (aged 24) he wrote a children’s book which his mother liked so much that she decided to send it to the Dutch Royal family in Canada. A note of thanks was received signed by Princess, now Queen, Beatrix. There followed several novels 1938b, 1944),  one detective story (1950), and a collection of stories written between 1936 and 1959 under the name of Holmer Johanssen (1963a, partly reprinted 1986c).


Shona Customary Law (1952a, 1969b) presents ‘law’ as an integral dimension of kinship organisation, marriage, and inheritance. The book does not contain any discussion of theoretical matters or the definition of law. Holleman only provides a brief account of the methods he used. He mentions that a greater part of his material consisted of case materials


which formed a realistic basis for a discussion and analysis of the legal principles involved. The various aspects of Shona law evolved, not as a clear pattern of strictly defined rules, but as a collection of broad concepts and guiding principles, the practical application of which varied with virtually every case in which they were reflected. (1969b: x)


This allowed him to conceive and formulate the general principles of an indigenous system of law, and to reveal its great flexibility as one of its essential characteristics (1969b: x). The book is remarkably self-contained, consisting only of his own research findings. As he writes in his preface, “the fact that I was able to arrive at all my conclusions on the basis of my own field data made me decide to exclude references to the published findings of other students of Shona law” (1969b: xi). He also presented Shona law as a world by itself, refraining from referring to the decisions of the High Court and Native Appeal Court of Southern Rhodesia, except in connection with certain  statutory provisions, which had become part of the body of Native Law as recognized in the colony. To incorporate the (often conflicting) interpretations of these Courts on questions of traditional Shona law would have changed the character and aim of the book (1969b: xi). In this regard, he showed the same self-containment in the description of African customary law as Sally Falk Moore (1978a) later was to criticise in Gluckman’s writing. It was only later, in postscripts added to earlier articles (1974), that he took up the discussion of ideas developed by Gluckman, Jaap van Velsen and Bill Epstein, old colleagues from his Rhodes-Livingstone Institute days, who had now become the Manchester school. Yet Shona Customary Law was a remarkable book. It was the first of the monographs on law that came out of [page 106] the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, written well before Max Gluckman published his first book on the Barotse judicial process (1955), or Hoebel wrote his book The Law of Primitive Man (1954), and before the different versions of the case method were developed that dominated the methodology and research interests in Anglo-American legal anthropology until the late 1960s.


Besides publishing his dissertation, Holleman wrote a number of articles between 1948 and 1962 on African court procedures and marriage, many of which were collected in the 1974 book Issues in African Law. Some of these case studies (the Case of the Troublesome Father, the Case of the Irate Headman) belong to the richest and most well-told case stories we have ever read, and we have used them frequently in our own courses. They direct the reader’s attention towards the different phases of disputing processes in which legal ideas play very different roles, and to the great significance in these processes of reliable evidence, with, in the case of the irate headman, an unforgettable account of the Careva mumanjemanje, a phase of role playing where members of the public take on the roles of plaintiff and/or defendant and try out the plausibility of a range of  arguments as to what had happened and what was relevant in terms of Careva notions of plausibility and justice.


But Holleman was not simply interested in issues of law. The period 1954-62 led to a number of publications in which “law” was not the central issue but rather the socio-economic problems of the native population and the resulting problems for the colonial administration. After his period at the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, he first became Keeper of the Queen Victoria Memorial Museum in Salisbury and later (1954-56) Senior Welfare Officer in the African Administration Department in Bulawayo and Wedza. He carried out research on  the increasing urbanisation in Salisbury and Bulawayo and the problems created by 100,000 migrant labourers. These experiences provided the material for his book Chief, Council and Commissioner (1969a). In 1957 he moved back to South Africa, to become Director of the Institute for Social Research of the University of Natal, Durban (1957-62). During this period he conducted and directed several research projects, including a socio-psychological research among white mine workers in the copperbelt in Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) (Holleman 1960-61, 1962a, 1964a, 1973a) and on the socio-economic conditions of the native population in Swaziland (1964b). In 196061 he was a member of the Mangwende Commission of Inquiry for research on the troubled situation and African protests in the Mreva region (Holleman 1961a, reprinted in 1969a).


In 1963 the first great period of his professional life ended when he accepted a call to Leiden to take up a new chair in the sociology and culture of Africa at the newly established Faculty of Social Sciences. He became director of the Africa [page 107] Studies Center (ASC) at the same time, and from 1966-68  also served as director of the Institute of Cultural Anthropology and Non-Western Sociology at Leiden. During this period, he initiated interdisciplinary field work in Tanzania. Resigning both his chair in African studies and his directorship of the ASC in 1969, he succeeded to the chair in adat law, which had been renamed as “folk law and legal development” in 1959. This chair had been founded at Leiden in 1877 and had, beside C. van Vollenhoven (1901-33) and F.D. Holleman (1934-39), been occupied by V.E. Korn (1939-58), and J. Keuning (1960-65).


During his Leiden years, Holleman devoted more systematic attention in his publications to the co-existence and contradictions between local customary and state legal ideas and processes of decision making (1973, 1979). He was also paying attention to Indonesia and adat law (1971a, 1975b), which in the early 1970s had again become a field for research by Dutch scholars. He spent a sabbatical year at NIAS, the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences where he worked on forms of obligation in African and Indonesian folk law and on legal reform and spontaneous legal developments in the Third World. He became more strongly concerned to develop the relations between adat law studies and the anthropology of law.  In his earlier writing there had been no explicit references to the work of the Dutch adat law scholars, even if he implicitly referred to these in the way he presented his findings. It was mainly in his 1973 contribution to the Hoebel Festschrift that he brought together the ideas developed in Anglo-American legal anthropology and the ideas of the adat law school, criticising the bias of the ‘trouble-case method’ and enriching the methodological discussions by drawing on the experiences and theoretical discussions of Van Vollenhoven and his own father with what he then called “trouble-less cases” (1973b, republished 1986a). Although he travelled to Africa on an almost yearly basis, he visited Indonesia once in 1983, for lectures and seminars. The publication of a translation of selected works of Van Vollenhoven in 1981 - a major undertaking of which Holleman was the main and most energetic organiser - in a way crowned this part of Holleman’s work as an intermediary between British social and legal anthropology and the heritage of Dutch adat law studies.


What should have been the crowning period of a remarkable academic career became a disappointment. While he enjoyed teaching and supervising students, Holleman suffered under the reorganisation, democratisation and increasing bureaucratisation of the university (1981b: 29). Bureaucratic demands for the quantification of scientific work pushed aside appreciation of its significance and quality, and the general atmosphere of mistrust created by these developments greatly demoralised him. He became disappointed and bitter. He did not attract many students, probably because of his intense, overpowering attitude and his [page 108] well-meant yet often sharp critical tongue. Within the social science faculty, he remained a highly respected colleague, yet somewhat of an outsider. His colleagues did not consider his work, and a focus on law and the administration of justice, to be a central field in non-western studies. In the law faculty, he remained marginal as well. He became overworked, had to take sick-leave, and in 1979 retired early for health reasons. He frequently complained that he could no longer write and did not want to write anything that was below his own, high standards. The bitterness increased when the university decided to discontinue his chair for budgetary reasons. Folk law and legal development, though building on a unique tradition that had gained Leiden an international reputation, no longer was considered important enough to warrant a chair. Holleman’s valedictory address of 1980 (1981b, 1982) clearly reflects his disappointment, and the feeling of betrayal of the Leiden tradition and himself by his colleagues and the university. This feeling was shared by the community of Dutch scholars interested in folk law and legal anthropology. John Griffiths (1981) called the decision of Leiden University "a culture-historical scandal, short-sighted and unforgivable."


After his retirement, Holleman did not publish much apart from a review of Moore’s Law as Process (1978b) in 1984, and a preface (1991) to the edited diary of his father’s mission to the Philippines where he had been invited by the American Council of Learned Societies in 1931 to give advice about promoting the study of customary law and to co-produce an edition of Philippine customary law law materials, which was published by the Van Vollenhoven Institute at Leiden in 1991 (F.D. Holleman 1991, see Van den Muijzenberg 2001: 492.). In addition, some of his earlier writings were republished or translated (1986b, 1986c). In the years before and after his retirement, Holleman was rather withdrawn and no longer took part in public meetings, but he remained an active member of the Volksrechtskring (Folk Law Circle), a group of Dutch-speaking scholars who shared his interest in folk law and the anthropology of law. This group had been gathering around Geert van den Steenhoven at the Institute for Folk Law at the University of Nijmegen since the mid-1970s. Holleman remained interested in the work of these younger colleagues, seriously commenting on their work, and kept a hospitable open house for those seeking discussion and advice.







1955          The Judicial Process Among the Barotse of Northern Rhodesia. Manchester: Manchester University Press on behalf of the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute.

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1981          ‘Van de redactie.’ NNR. Orgaan van de Vereniging voor de sociaal-wetenschappelijke bestudering van het recht en van de Volksrechtskring (Nijmegen) [later Recht der Werkelijkheid] 2: 1.

HOEBEL, E.Adamson

1954          The Law of Primitive Man. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

HOLLEMAN, Frederik D.

1991          Philippijnsch dagboek; Volksrecht in de Philippijnen, een moeizame verkenning. Leiden: Van Vollenhoven Instituut voor Recht en Bestuur in Niet-Westerse Landen.


1993          ‘The "House" and Zulu political structure in the nineteenth century.’ Journal of African History 34: 469-487.

MOORE, Sally F.

1978a        Law as Process. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

1978b        ‘Archaic law and modern times on the Zambezi: some thoughts on Max Gluckman's interpretation of Barotse law.’ Pp. 53-77 in Philip H. Gulliver (ed.) Cross-examinations: Essays in Memory of Max Gluckman. Leiden: E.J. Brill.


2001          ‘Philippine-Dutch Social Relations 1600-2000.’ Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 157: 471-509.


2001          Africanizing Anthropology. Fieldwork, Networks, and the Making of Cultural Knowledge in Central Africa. Durham: Duke University Press.



Bibliography of J.F. Holleman


1936-9       Several short stories in The Cape Argus, Die Huisgenoot and Die Stellenbosche Student, under his own name or pseudonym Jacobus van der Blaeswindt.

1938a        Inheemse regsgemeenskappe by die Zulu. Magister-verhandeling [MA dissertation] Universiteit van Stellenbosch, 96 pp.

1938b        Holmer Johanssen (pseud.) Gety. Kaapstad: Unie-Volkspers. 218 pp.

1939          Klos hulle. Kaapstad. Reprinted Kaapstad: A.A. Balkema 1956.

1940          ‘Die twee-eenheidsbeginsel in die sosiale en politieke samelewing van die Zulu.’ Bantu Studies 14: 31-75.

1941          ‘Die Zulu isigodi.’ Bantu Studies 15(2), June: 91-118, 15(3) September: 245-276. Also separately published by the University of Witwatersrand Press, Johannesburg. English translation 1986.

[page 110]

1944        Holmer Johanssen (pseud.) Die onterfdes. Port Elizabeth & Kaapstad: Unie-Volkspers, 185 pp. 3rd ed. Amsterdam/Kaapstad: A.A. Balkema 1956, 159 pp.

1949          The Pattern of Hera Kinship. Cape Town/London/New York: Oxford University Press. Published for the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute by Geoffrey Cumberlege (The Rhodes-Livingstone Papers 17). iv + 58 pp. maps.

1950         Holmer Johanssen (pseud.) Die Moordenaar was "G.B." Johannesburg: Afrikaanse Pers-Boekhandel (Kroonspeurreeks No. 22), 159 pp. Reprinted as Kortverhale, in Die Huisgenoot.

1951a        ‘Some Shona-speaking tribes of Southern Rhodesia.’ Pp. 354-368 in Elizabeth Colson and Max Gluckman (eds.), Seven Tribes of British Central Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

1951b        ‘An anthropological approach to Bantu law. with special reference to Shona law. Rhodes-Livingstone Journal 1950 (10): 51-64.

1952a        Shona Customary Law. With reference to Kinship, Marriage, the Family and the Estate. Cape Town/London/New York: Oxford University Press. Published in association with the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute and the Beit Trust by Geoffrey Cumberlege. xix + 401 pp. Reviews: The Times, British Colonies Review, Winter 1952, Quarterly Issue No. 8; L.P. Mair in African Affairs 52(206): 75, January 1953; H.R.G.H. (Roger Howman) in NADA no. 30, 1953; E.R. Leach in Man, April 1953; J.D. Krige, Ons Eie Boek 19(11): 63-64; V.E. Korn in Mens en Maatschappij 26(2), 1951: 146-158.

1952b        ‘Hera court procedure.’ NADA (The Southern Rhodesia Native Affairs Department Annual, Salisbury 29: 26-42.

1953a        Accommodating the spirit amongst some North-Eastern Shona tribes. Cape Town/London/New York: Oxford University Press. Published for the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute by Geoffrey Cumberlege (Rhodes-Livingstone Papers 22). 40 pp. Reprinted by University of Zambia, Institute for African Studies, 1975 (R.H. Offord, editor).

1955          Indigenous administration of justice. NADA 32: 41-47.

1958          African Interlude. Cape Town/Bloemfontein/Johannesburg: Nasionale Boekhandel BPK. 269 pp.

1959-60      ‘Die bantoehuwelik op die kruispad.’ Tijdskrif vir Rasse-aangeleenthede 11: 82-117. English version 1960-61.

1960-61      The Attitudes of White Mining Employees towards Life and Work on the Copperbelt and at Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia. Natal: National Institute for Personnel Research in association with the Institute for Social Research, University of Natal. 2 vols. Part I: ‘A Social Psychological Study’, by J.F. Holleman in collaboration with S. [page 112] Biesheuvel. viii + 71 pp. tables. CSIR Contract Report 10/60. Part II: NIPR 10/60 & NIPR 18/61. Johannesburg.

1960-61      ‘African Marriage at the Cross-Roads.’ Race Relations Journal 27: 153-157 (Part I); Parts II and III under the title ‘Bantu Marriage at the Crossroads’, 28.

1961a        Report of the Mangwende Commission of Inquiry. Salisbury: Government Printer.

1961b        ‘Sabra 1961: The Great Purge.’ (Report of the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the South African Bureau of Racial Affairs, Bloemfontein, September 1961). Durban: University of Natal, Institute for Social Research. 21 pp. Stencil. For ISR Circulation.

1962a        (with J.W. Mann and Pierre L. Van den Berghe) ‘A Rhodesian White Minority Under Threat.’ The Journal of Social Psychology 57: 315-338. Stencil: Institute of Natal, Institute for Social Research, for ISR Circulation.

1962b        ‘Cash, cattle or women: a conflict of concepts in a dual economy.’ Paper read to the Economic Society, Durban, October 1962. Durban: University of Natal, Institute for Social Research. 18 pp. + 3 diagrams. For ISR circulation.

1963a        Holmer Johanssen (pseud.) Die Swerftog van die Helena. Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau. 198 pp.

1963b        Verkenningen in het Babel der acculturatie. Inaugural address University of Leiden. Leiden: E.J. Brill. 47 pp.

1964a        (ed., with Joan Knox, J.W. Mann and K.A. Heard) Problems of Transition. Proceedings of the Social Sciences Research Conference [at Durban] 1962. Pietermaritzburg: Natal University Press for the Institute for Social Research, University of Natal, Durban. xvii + 284 pp.

1964b        (ed.) Experiment in Swaziland. Report of the Swaziland Sample Survey 1960. Institute for Social Research, University of Natal for the Swaziland Administration. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. xi + 352 pp. ill.

1964c        ‘Some aspects of agronomic policy in Swaziland.’ In 1964b

1964d        ‘Volkshoofden en openbare mening in Rhodesië.’ Kroniek van Afrika (Leiden), 4(4), December, pp. 273-281. Continued 1965.

1964e        ‘De invloed van het Westen op de Bantoe.’ Zuid-Afrika. Maandblad, June: 3-7. (Also published in Ensiklopedie van Suider Afrika).

1964f         ‘Belegerde minderheid in Zuidelijk Afrika. De "Copperbelt" in Rhodesia: microbeeld van een macroprobleem.’ Elseviers Maandblad 34(9): 20-30.

1965a        ‘Debat over volkshoofden en openbare mening.’ Kroniek van Afrika 4(1), March, pp. 44-47.

1965b        Holmer Johanssen (pseud.) Die begrafnis. In: J.P. Smuts & Ria van Rensburg (eds.) Mosaïek. Kortverhaal-bundel. Saamgesteld en van [page 112] aantekeninge voorsien deur. Kaapstad: Hollandsch Afrikaansche Uitgevers Maatschappij (HAUM). Revised ed. 1983; 8th ed. 1985; 1988.

1965c        Rhodesië in de stroomversnelling. Internationale Spectator 22 (December):  1727-1747.

1969a        Chief, Council and Commissioner. Some Problems of Government in Rhodesia. Assen: Royal Van Gorcum Ltd. Published on behalf of the Afrika-Studiecentrum. xix + 391 pp. maps, tables.

1969b        Shona Customary Law. With Reference to Kinship, Marriage, the Family and the Estate. 2nd impression. Manchester: Manchester University Press. xix + 401 pp. fig., maps tab. Published on behalf of the Institute of Social Research, University of Zambia. Distributed in the U.S.A. by Humanities Press, New York. First published 1952.

1971a        Het belang van de adviezen van het dorpshoofd en de dorpsjustitie voor de nationale rechter in Indonesië. Ten geleide bij overwegingen van Sugijono, militair rechter in Bandung, met 24 andere Indonesische juristen in Nederland voor een nascholingscursus. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 127: 492-493; 493-496.

1971b        Review of Vernon V. Palmer, The Roman-Dutch and Lesotho Law of Delict (Leiden: A.W. Sijthoff 1970). Rechts-Magazijn Themis: 85-88.

1973a        (with S. Biesheuvel) White Mine Workers in Northern Rhodesia 1959-60. Leiden: Afrika-Studiecentrum/Cambridge: African Studies Centre (African Social Research Documents vol. 6). xi + 136 pp. tables.

1973b        ‘Trouble-cases and trouble-less cases in the study of customary law and legal reform.’ Law & Society Review. The Journal of the Law and Society Association 7, Festschrift for E. Adamson Hoebel: 585-609. Republished 1986.

1974a        Issues in African law. The Hague/Paris: Mouton & Co. (Change and Continuity in Africa 4) (Monographs under the auspices of the Afrika-studiecentrum, Leiden). x + 179 pp.

1974b        ‘The case of the troublesome father. (A Shona case brought before the court of Hera, Rhodesia, in 1946).’ Pp. 22-47 in  Issues in African Law. First published as 1952b; postscript added. The Hague: Mouton.

1974c        ‘The case of the irate headman. (Brought before the court of Careva, Mtoko district, in 1951). Pp. 49-83 in Issues in African Law. The Hague: Mouton.

1974d        ‘Cash, cattle or women: a conflict of concepts in a dual economy.’ Pp. 133-149 in Issues in African Law. The Hague: Mouton. Originally presented in 1962.

1975a        ‘Obituary Professor Kwamena Bentsi-Enchill.’ Kroniek van Afrika, new series 4: 1-2.

[page 113]

1975b        ‘Van Vollenhoven en het adatrecht’. Pp. 9-15 in Herdenking van de 100ste geboortedag van Cornelis van Vollenhoven. Leiden: Cornelis van Vollenhoven Stichting, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de RU Leiden.

1975c        ‘Some problems of evidence in Shona tribal law.’ Pp. 75-94 in: Meyer Fortes and S. Patterson (eds.), Studies in African Social Anthropology. London: Academic Press.

1977a        (with others) Leiden in Africa. Leiden: Instituut voor Culturele Antropologie en Sociologie der Niet-Westerse Volken, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (ICA Publicatie 23). iii + 114 pp.

1977b        ‘Tegenstrijdigheden tussen recht en maatschappelijk verkeer in een cultureel-pluralistische samenleving.’ Pp. 1-27 in 1977a.

1978          ‘Betrekkingen met Zuid-Afrikaanse Universiteiten.’ ICA-Nieuwsbrief, April: 5.

1979a        ‘Disparities and uncertainties in African law and jurisdiction: a Rhodesian case study.’ African Law Studies 17: 1-35.

1979b        Law and Anthropology: A Necessary Partnership for the Study of Legal Change in Plural Systems. Journal of African Law 23(2): 117-130.

1981a        ‘Een lijk op kerstfeest.’ Pp. 39-52 in Cor Remie and Fons Strijbosch (eds.), Afscheidsalbum Geert van den Steenhoven. Opstellen over recht en cultuur in niet-westerse samenlevingen. Nijmegen: Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid.

1981b        ‘Volksrecht in Leiden’ (valedictory address Leiden, 9 May 1980). NNR. Orgaan van de Vereniging voor de sociaal-wetenschappelijke bestudering van het recht en van de Volksrechtskring (Nijmegen) [later Recht der Werkelijkheid]  2: 17-33. English translation 1982.

1981c        (ed.) Van Vollenhoven on Indonesian Adat Law. Selections from Het adatrecht van Nederlandsch-Indië (vol. 1, 1918; vol. 2, 1931). Translated from the Dutch by J.F. Holleman, Rachel Kalis and Kenneth Maddock. With an Introduction by H.W.J. Sonius. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff (KITLV Translations Series 20). lxvii + 307 pp. Reviews: Peter Burns in Kabar Seberang 13/14, 1984: 200-201; Daniel S. Lev in Journal of Legal Pluralism 22, 1984: 147-155; Mason C. Hoadley in The Journal of Asian Studies XLIV, May 1985: 674-676; F. von Benda-Beckmann in Nederlands Juristen Blad 29 September 1984: 1035-1037; Subekti in Hukum dan Pembangunan 13, January 1983: 53-54.

1982          ‘Folk law at Leiden. Parting address, delivered at Leiden on 9 May, 1980.’ 21 pp. English translation of 1981b. Unpublished.

1984          Review of Sally Falk Moore, Law as Process. An Anthropological Approach (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul 1983). Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 140: 189-190.

[page 114]

1986a        ‘Trouble-cases and trouble-less cases in the study of customary law and legal reform.’ Pp. 110-131 in: Keebet von Benda-Beckmann and Fons Strijbosch (eds.), Anthropology of Law in the Netherlands. Dordrecht/Cinnaminson: Foris (Verhandelingen van het KITLV 116). Originally published in 1973.

1986b        ‘The structure of the Zulu ward.’ African Studies 45: 109-133, tables. [Translation by W.D. Hammond-Tooke, Johannesburg, of 1941, part 1.]

1986c        Holmer Johannsen (ps.) Die seereis. [From Die swerftog van die Helena. Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau 1963.] In: Knapsak. 'n Versameling leesstukke vir die jeug uitgesoek en van aantekeninge vorsien deur P.J. du Toit. Pretoria/Kaapstad: Academica, pp. 170-174.

1991          ‘Voorwoord.’ Pp. ix-xiii in F.D. Holleman (ed.), Philippijnsch dagboek. Volksrecht in de Philippijnen, een moeizame verkenning April-Juli 1931. Bezorgd door J.Th. Smidt. Leiden: Van Vollenhoven Instituut voor Recht en Bestuur in Niet-Westerse Landen.

1994          ‘Trouble-cases and trouble-less cases in the study of customary law and legal reform.’ Pp. 601-635 in: Alison Dundes Renteln and Alan Dundes (eds.), Folk Law: Essays in the Theory and Practice of Lex Non Scripta. New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc. Originally published in 1973.

1995          ‘Trouble-cases and trouble-less cases in the study of customary law and legal reform.’ Pp. 61-85 in: Gordon R. Woodman and A.O. Obilade (eds.), African Law and Legal Theory, International Library of Esssays in Law and Legal Theory, Legal Cultures 8. Aldershot: Dartmouth. Originally published in 1973.